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Overview on digital imaging.

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

  • Overview on digital imaging.

Prism
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Imaging science

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

  1. The tools
  2. Pixels and windows
  3. Basic operations
    1. Color spaces
    2. Geometric Transformations
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Langage et communication

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

Les virus sont les formes de vie les plus primitives et les plus simples qu’on peut rencontrer dans notre planète, formé par une structure protéique qui protège le génome qui baigne dans le liquide interstitiel. En dehors d’un corps vivant il n’est qu’une infime quantité de matière qui ne montre aucun signe de vie,et c'est tout à fait normal pour les formes assez simple comme les virus, l'absence de mitochondrie, les rend inactifs, incapable de rien faire par eux même, mais dés qu’il pénètre dans une cellule, le virus injecte sa matière génétique à l’intérieure du cytoplasme, le génome du virus va imposer son propre agenda sur les composantes de la cellule infectée, pour assurer sa multiplication et la création de nouveaux agents viraux.

La simplicité structurale d’un virus l’empêche de se reproduire par lui-même.

Les biologistes font l’étude des virus pour connaitre leurs caractéristiques dans des buts pharmaceutiques, on n’a pas intérêt à beaucoup s’approfondir dans un sujet aussi fascinant que celui des virus sinon on ne terminera jamais, dans la suite, on ne donnera que les détails nécessaires à notre analyse.

Si on revient à ce qu’on a dit avant, on remarque que la reproduction est vitale pour les virus, d’ailleurs un virus n’a qu’un seul but dans la vie ! se reproduire.

Au début, on peut l’assimilé à un système fermé sur lui-même ne communiquant avec aucun autre organisme.

A l’entrer dans un organisme vivant ce même système devient ouvert même très ouvert sur l’environnement externe, en s’accrochant à une cellule il communique son génome c’est ça son langage, un langage biologique les phrases sont des séquences d’ADN ou d’ARN selon le type de virus, l’alphabet c’est GATTACA, cette langage est à pouvoir expressif très faible même plus faible que des langages informatiques ou électroniques puisqu’elle est ne contient que les mots nécessaires pour faire fonctionner son programme (la prise de contrôle sur les composantes de la cellule) et n’admet pas un mécanisme de génération de nouveaux mots.

Le virus donc a pu survivre par une communication aussi primitive qu’elle soit, en utilisant un langage qui compréhensible pour les êtres réceptives qui sont les virus, donc de cela on peut suggérer que sans communication et sans langage un organisme ne peut pas survivre.

Revenons un peu à notre histoire humaine, les civilisations ont été toujours centrées autour des carrefours géographiques ou les peuples se rencontrent et communiquent, la communication est l’essence de la civilisation, le fanatisme et l’obscurantisme c’est une plaie pour les civilisations, ce qui justifie l’étude des langages en tant que sujet d’étude et en tant que outil pour étudier d’autres domaines.

On a vu avant l’importance des langages pour les organismes pensants, mais on n’a pas parlé rigoureusement des objectifs d’un langage.

Le premier objectif c’est d’agir comme une infrastructure pour des êtres donnés. C’est une solution pour les problèmes d’incompréhensions si tous le monde parle le même langage, on serait sur qu’on va avoir une compréhension optimale.

Le deuxième objectif c’est d’explorer de nouvelles méthodes pour la résolution des problèmes, les grands travaux de résultats comme l’incomplétude de Gödel, ou même celle de Georg Cantor sur les degrés d’infinie, si par exemple Gödel n’a pas eu recours à la notion d’isomorphisme de langage pour coder les propositions logiques sous forme binaire on n’arriverait pas à des résultats aussi surprenantes.

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Towards a new layer in the traditional OSI model

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

In 2001, Microsoft released its first tablet, back then no one was able to perceive the opportunity within devices small enough to be carried by the user wherever he goes, it took ten years and the efforts of many mega corporations like Apple, Google, Nokia and Samsung to establish strong basis for the ever growing smartphone industry. This new industry is making traditional personal computer industry into a marginal one reducing it into a low expectations business destined to a decreasing number of users.

This metamorphosis, trembled the hole international macro-economy since old economic theories cannot deal with this sort of cognitive economy based on the value of information and its virality, old economic theories like the Keynesian theory does not take into account the value of creativity which is the main essence of this cognitive era.

Technologies comes always with some issues, we all remember the 2000 bug, the world was trembling before the idea that all the devices using a timer will stop functioning with the beginning of the 21st century that's why many countries and associations like IEEE made great efforts in standardization, nowadays all equipment are manufactured using universal standards, it is ok we got rid of the problem of compatibility, only to find other major problems, that are no longer related to engineering but to the economy, like monetization and intellectual property.

How to finance a small project? How to generate income? How to ensure the durability of your project? Economic theories are based on quantizing some economic features like quantity, price and inflation; here the problem is much more complicated, since we deal with the human as the center of the economic universe, not the way old theories presented it, and the problem is how to quantize human creativity and innovation?

For that, i propose a new economic paradigm inspired by the existing virality model, and nature. Nature? Are you nuts? How come?

Yes nature, … ideas are like an ant settlement in order to grow it needs the collaborative effort of a hole community, the income will be generated and distributed to all the collaborators proportionally to their collaborative value, not to mention that intelligence and innovation exists only in networks, from the rail networks that connected people thousands miles distant to the ant society architecture through the neurons in our brains, moreover the virality which is a measure of the creativity can be predicted by analyzing trends in social media, the advances in the fields of natural language processing and image recognition made science fiction true, now we can perform advanced cognitive like tasks such as sentiment analysis and relations retrieving, computers are becoming self-aware more and more, still skeptical ? Check Google’s deep mind project or Stanford’s NLP core.

Our idea will focus on publicity and the way we perceive it. Imagine you wear a tee-shirt with an enterprise's logo on it, people perceive the logo and they may become interested in having the same tee-shirt, this is publicity, and it is ignored by advertisers, even that it may turns out the most effective advertisement strategy, collaborating with people to advertise your products. Using those advertisers can come out with more creative tactics. Like any new idea, it will come with many issues to solve like how to quantize the affection of people towards a certain product? How to come out with a highly secure transaction system? And it needs a metamorphosis in the advertisement ecosystem, since monetization requires an API for each advertiser how to build a well-structured system compatible with all the APIs.

Those API can be seen as a generalization of the idea behind the semantic web and the internet 3.0 into a larger scale, adding a new layer to the traditional OSI model, one that we can call it Semantics layer.

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Computing the ambiguities part 2

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

Language contact models

Throughout history people traveled to every corner of the earth, taking with them all the cultural features that had shaped their history and present. This cultural flux resulted on languages interacting with each other leading to new forms of languages or simply to the extinction of some languages. In this article we will deal with the language contact models, or how to model the interaction between languages.

Ontology

We have a language contact when two languages or more interact; the field of linguistics dealing with this contact is called contact linguistics.

The study of language contact is fueled with the widespread of multilingualism, when the speakers interact directly with different languages it is typical for their cultural features to interact, influencing each other. An approach to study contact is to take notice of the geographical borders of language communities classifying adstratum (neighboring), superstratum and substratum languages resulting from an intrusive migration or invasion.

Language contact is witnessed in a variety of linguistic phenomena including language conversion

( whereby languages with many bilingual speakers mutually borrow morphological and syntactic features, making their typology more similar typology)

, borrowing and relexification

( mechanism of language change by which one language replaces much or all of its lexicon, including basic vocabulary, with that of another language, without drastic change to its grammar)

, this results in many linguistics products like pidgins

( pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade)

, creoles

(is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar)
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Computing the ambiguities part 1

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

Natural language processing is a field of data where we use textual information in order to comprehend a semantic meaning or to extract information.

Nowadays, many big firms like google and facebook are interested in understanding social communities their needs and their interaction with other communities, and to perform those tasks they found themselves in need for a model to the human behaviour, a human behaviour model is a predictive model based on human activities and communication, such model contains a lot of features that are sensible to people like monitoring location or monitoring social networking activities and a lot of people are not willing to give such information due to their privacy concerns. So they turned into another tempting model, which can not be altered by consumers' choices, it is the language model, it cannot be altered because it is based on a neo-fundamental need the need for a social life that extends the physical limits and since it is becoming a need for anyone to have a virtual social life to promote careers and to share experiences big firms are confident that their model basis are going to last long.

This model uses social content such as posts, likes, notes, comments and messages to profile people into categories of interest which can be crucial when it comes to making efficient advertisement campaigns, or in simple words how to send the right ad to the right persons. Since we only think using a language, the profiling can only be a language model, we have at least those two use cases the content is written in a standard language like English and Arabic or in a non standard language like the Tunisian dialect.

To make a language model for a standard one it is not that hard we just have to have a large dataset of verified textual content, from the dataset at first, we need a layout segmentation to extract paragraphs, titles and sentences then we perform the simplest statistical approach calculating occurrences, in order to extract vocabulary, and relations between words afterwords from those relations and with the use of grammatical standards we extract semantic relations like the syntactic tree and other features.

For a non standard language this can be a little bit tricky let's say we have this community Tunisia, people are using a dialect that is a mix of Arab, French, English and others, this language is does not have a standard it is a spoken language that is widely used and written in social networks, it is rare compared to the usual to have a Tunisian person writing a content in a standard language.

A nonstandard language does not have a proper structure then what we need is a structure model for non standard language, a model that extends the capabilities of a standard language model comprehend the semantics behind code switching, for example let's take this sentence.

مشيت لل pharmacie نلقى روحي ناسيا ال ordonnance.

the translation to english is : I went to the pharmacy, but i forgot the prescription.

in this case the code switching can help the reader to focus on generally ( in terms of probabilities ) low Intel sentence elements in this case the place descriptor, more then that in terms of entropy the code switching ( the sudden code switching can easily be noticed in an entire text ) can hold an information that can be used to accentuate a fact or an element inside the sentence.

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Consciousness and information theory

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

Abstract

Shannon is most famous for his development of the classical information theory; his works did not only contribute to the theory of probability but to the understanding of thermodynamics and statistical physics, as he presented entropy as information to be gained.

However, apart from the fact that his theory is purely numeric without any further indication of the nature of the information and its meaning, it unfortunately left the mystery of the conscious observer (probabilistic events that are only described by a numerical probability become certain when attached to a conscious observer).

Goal

The goal of this article is to unravel the mystery behind the last problem in order to understand how the effect of an event on the observer is not similar to the way it affects elsewhere in the physical world.

Overviews and definitions

In order to present the problem in simple words, i will proceed with the following example which is quiet understandable to anyone with a basic computer science background.

Observing (or rather, debugging) a running program by modifying its source code (such as adding extra output or generating log files) or by running it in a debugger may sometimes cause certain bugs to diminish or change their behavior, creating extra difficulty for the person trying to isolate the bug.

- So Observing is receiving information from an object, the information can be a result of a running program, a temporal series describing an ongoing event basically anything that describes an event.

- And Observing can add additional information in order to receive a specific representation of the event which results on altering the event itself.

With those two remarks we can assert that Observing can be defined as Adding additional information in order to Receive a specific representation of the event.

The human observer and consciousness

It is widely accepted that information processing is done inside the brain, and the brain is composed of matter which makes it less different from any physical system so the laws applied on physical systems can be applied there as well.

For Herbert S. Green Consciousness is a synthesis of awareness and volition, while awareness is the acquisition of information and volition is the creation of new information.

Those informal definitions are preferred to those taken from dictionaries because they does not need to be cyclic and can be strengthened by logical statements and mathematical formulates whose interpretation is independent of the speaker and the language.

The suggested definition is consistent with the ordinary use of the words awareness and volition which won't create an ambiguity to nonscientific readers.

Thus we can assert that:

- Consciousness is awareness or the integrality of the conscious states, aware suggests some sort of vigilance or in making inferences about what we perceive (hear, see, sense, etc.).

- Consciousness is volition or the acts of willing or choosing, it is important to note that many of what seems manifestations of volition, belongs to the unconscious sphere, for example we don't choose generally to breath or not we just do it.

Information is knowledge derived from reading, observing unorganized data, but the mind is set to see through this disorder.

Giving a framework to the subject will help to model the entities within the nervous system responsible of conscious act which is inevitable if we like to simulate and reproduce this kind of behavior.

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Machine intelligence letters [letter 1]

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

History of man

I'm really confused, how to tell the story of man, should i start with the fact that we are an animal species or should i begin with the story of man as a social creature.

As a specie, the human kind got itself separated from the taxonomical tribe of the Hominine 200 000 years ago in Africa, since then humans wandered on all corners of earth for resources or fleeing danger.

The last sentence suggests that the two basics needs for a human were "food' and "security", that was all what mattered for thousands of years.

Food was irrelevant, and not always abundant or easy to get, to get food men were obliged to hunt other animals. Small animals were easy to catch but they were small and man needed more food to sustain its ever growing nutritional needs, so he turned into larger animals. Larger animals were not that easy to catch or a man by his own, and this is a breakpoint in the human history, small colonies began to emerge, small groups of hunters wandered looking for bigger preys like zebras and buffalos, this new life style is made the human more intelligent and creative.

With colonies growing in size, humans become aware that food is becoming less and less abundant, the solution was to return to its vegetarian primate origins, and this another marking point in history, "the naissance of agriculture", researchers say that the earliest development was around 11 500 years ago in the Fertile crescent.

The fertile crescent is the name given to the region in middle east around the rivers Tigris, Euphrates and Nile, and as we all know water sources are inevitable to agriculture, this resulted in a mass migration to those regions, remember that before the colonies of man were composed of a small number of individuals, now those colonies become bigger and bigger and this is another marking point in history "The first cities".

Cities provided individuals with security and food become again abundant, this abundance resulted in the first commercial exchanges "food for food" and this is another marking point.

To trade goods, the first men faced a new challenge "how to express your needs and desires to others?" and this is another marking point "The first language".

Language by definition is a mean of communication, language made exchanges easier but the most important consequence of this invention is that ideas now can be communicated between individuals, which lead us to another marking point "The first cosmogony".

Cosmogony is a story of the origin and development of the universe, cosmogonies is important because they enabled the first men to train their brains to imagine abstract things and to interpolate concepts.

For me this is where the history of man stops, the rest just describes an adaptive and evolutive of the man.

Conclusions and remarks
  • Intelligence is a quantified process, and between each realization there is always an event.
  • The common aspect of each defining moment is the emergence of a sort of a network, at first formed by the small group of hunters that wandered looking for food, secondly formed by the groups of hunters forming the first agriculture colonies around the Fertile Crescent rivers, After that formed by trading routes between cities connecting people via merchandise.
  • Other events like the "first rail routes" also marked humanity physically connecting people from different cities and countries.
  • 20th century, was marked by ideologies, let's take the example of communism. Communism gained momentum after the Bolshevik revolution but let's focus on how did communism reached Russia at first place, Marx, Proudhon and Bakunin were the precursors of communism their articles slowly reached workers from all over the world, and small groups of adepts of communism began to form in France (where they started the first socialist revolution "Commune de Paris"), Germany, England, USA etc. Those groups become connected and often cooperated in order to establish the "dictatorship of the proletariat".

The historical facts are not as important for this analysis as the fact that those factions formed a network which opened the way to non-material network or data networks.

Now i need to ask you a question, do you think that intelligence emerges within the network?
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L'ensemble selon Georg Cantor

30 Mai 2016 , Rédigé par Med Zied Arbi

Un ENSEMBLE, pour Georg Cantor est "toute collection dont les éléments sont des objets précis et distingués de notre intuition ou de la pensée". Cantor définie aussi un ensemble par "un beaucoup, qu’on peut considérer comme un" plus précisément une totalité d’éléments déterminés qui peuvent être combinés en un ensemble par une loi.

On peut s’opposer à la première définition au motif qu’il utilise les concepts de collection et de beaucoup qui sont des notions pas mieux compris que d’un ensemble, qu’il devrait y avoir des ensembles d’objets qui ne sont pas des objets de notre pensée, que l’intuition est un terme issue d’une théorie de la connaissance que personne ne devrait croire. Et on peut objecter à la seconde sur les motifs que un beaucoup est agrammaticale, que si quelque chose est beaucoup, il ne devrait guère être considéré comme un, une totalité est aussi obscure qu’un ensemble, que c’est loin d’être clair comment les lois peuvent combiner quelques choses en un tout, et qu’il devrait y avoir des combinaisons en un tout par des mécanismes autres que les lois. Mais on ne peut pas nier que les définitions de Cantor pourraient être utiles pour identifier et acquérir une certaine compréhension de la sorte d’objets dont Cantor voulait traiter qui sont les ensembles.

En outre, ces deux définitions suggèrent deux caractéristiques importantes de ces objets. -Qu’un ensemble est déterminé par ces éléments. Donc deux ensembles ayant les es mêmes éléments sont identiques -Que pour définir un ensemble il est plus rationnel de définir ces éléments avant de le définir.

On ne peut pas présumer que les concepts de "ensemble" et "est un élément de" peuvent être expliqué ou définie à partir d’autres notions qui sont simples ou conceptuellement plus basique. Cependant, une théorie qui fournit des explications sur les ensembles et sur la loi d’appartenance est plus bénéfique que des définitions qui n’apportent forcément pas grand chose. Et donc il n’est pas nécessaire qu’une théorie sur les ensembles commence ou même contient une Définition de ensemble.

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